Nancy Florence, Architect, February 8, 1935 - July 24, 2015: Bobbie Sue Hood remembers her friend and colleague as part of the evolution of women architects over the past 40 years
by Bobbie Sue Hood
Nancy Florence was among the first OWA members in the early 1970's and an early Steering Committee Member. Her life and her career illustrate the gifts and resources women have brought to the design professions, our struggle to be treated the same as male architects, and our search for training and technology to create buildings and find clients with like values for whom we can create work we are proud of. Nancy and I have been friends since before she formally decided to become an architect. In a way, Julia Morgan introduced us - I met Nancy at a talk and slide show which Sarah Holmes Boutelle gave as Sarah began research on Morgan's 800 buildings - about 1974 or 1975. But Nancy's interest in landscape and the relationship of culture, climate, and topography to the arts began long before that.
Born in Los Angeles, Nancy grew up in a family interested in art, music, sports, cooking well, and why some buildings (like a Southern California courtyard house) or objects (like a Japanese teapot or door hardware) not only work well but make an ordinary object beautiful. Her daughter Rachel Baker notes:
"My mother was heavily influenced by the example of her aunt, Rachel Cohen, an artist and independent, single woman in Los Angeles during the early 20th Century. Aunt Ray made her own clothes, ceramics, lamps, stationery, textiles. I think Aunt Ray inspired Nancy to want to create beauty in every element of her environment and to feel she could learn and turn her hand to almost any craft."
Nancy studied botany as an undergraduate at UCLA - drawn by how plants vary according to climate and geography, and thrive by adapting to their environments. They fail by not adapting or by not adapting quickly enough to changing environments. She brought this principal to her architecture. After college, she taught in Japan, outside of Tokyo, for a year. She noted the dialogue between traditional Japanese buildings and their landscape settings - often carefully contrived to look natural. She was fascinated by how good design using high quality local materials and fabrication processes could make useful objects beautiful - fabrics, paper, knives, bowls, teapots - no matter how utilitarian.
Nancy married and had two children, Rachel and Treven Baker. The family settled in Portola Valley, CA, near San Francisco Airport, where her husband John, a pilot for United Airlines was based. She used air travel privileges to visit friends and family living in India and Africa.. She observed local design values, construction techniques, relationships between buildings and their natural surroundings, and everyday objects. She saw how different climates, geography, topography and cultures influence local values and design..
Her love and understanding of Japanese art and culture influenced her first remodeling project from the early 1970's – an addition to the family house on acreage in Portola Valley. This was before Silicon Valley was a synonym for young, rich, high tech billionaires who drive the economy. Locals still kept horses and lived in relatively simple rural houses.. Rutty roads reached unassuming houses sited for convenience and view rather than creating an urban block façade. To remodel her family's home, Nancy chose a prominent Palo Alto architect to advise her, Morgan Stedman, just before he retired. Morgan's values matched hers, so he agreed to work with her as the primary designer, to teach her about structure, construction practices, and how to specify and find materials and subs. Their major addition and remodeling of Nancy's house was her first project and his last. He encouraged her to go back to school and become an architect.
|Sarah Boutelle was personally so warm and engaging, enthusiastic, that her lectures fostered many women's and young architects' friendships. For young women architects facing challenges in our own careers, Morgan's story was encouraging and reassuring. Sarah had begun giving lectures and slide shows on Julia Morgan in "newly re-discovered" Julia Morgan buildings. (3) Nancy Florence and I met at one of Sarah's first JM presentations. All three of us hit it off immediately, had a good time and remained lifelong friends. |
During this same period, in pace with national women's movements, a small group of women architects in the Bay Area compared notes about the discrimination they were experiencing in various male architects' offices and formed the Organization of Women Architects (OWA - founded 1973). I was a founding member of the OWA Steering Committee. Nancy Florence soon joined OWA and the Steering Committee. (4)
|Nancy Florence's career history parallels that of many other women from this watershed period: women who were expected to be well-informed and socially savvy wives, mothers, and hostesses, who were expected to treat their accomplishments and interests as hobbies, in deference to males. Women training for a profession after a liberal arts degree were still unusual but growing in numbers. Many graduate schools argued that they should not waste space on accepting women as students because they wouldn't be able to find jobs after they graduated, and, even if they did find jobs, a woman would leave the profession when her children were born whereas a man would work his entire career. Women students were seen as a bad investment of resources and waste of time. (5)|
In the 1970's pioneer women architects were enthusiastic, courageous, energetic, and naïve about organizational skills. We were optimistic that we could improve the world, and it wouldn't take too long, either. Seven women in architecture, planning, and architectural criticism, including me, met at a conference at Washington University in St. Louis about 1974. Before we left St. Louis, Leslie Weisman, who was/is not an architect but teaches architects, said "Let's have a school!" and six of us immediately agreed. Mostly from the East Coast (I was initially the only westerner), we were determined to create the Women's School of Planning and Architecture (WSPA, pronounced "Whispa"). We were out to change the world fast and still believed that was possible. WSPA's first summer session was in 1975. These ad hoc groups like OWA and WSPA tackled issues from many directions, with humor, mutual support, and job referrals. We also wanted to celebrate women's work and publicize their projects. In the process we also created lifelong friendships.
We founded, financed, and produced WSPA's first summer session at Biddeford College in Biddeford, Maine, a derelict former mill town, on the Atlantic Ocean. Creating the organization, raising the budget, renting a dormitory and other buildings on the campus for two weeks, organizing the program, and advertising to prospective students required long, complicated discussions for consensus - every decision had to be made by unanimous consent. Long distance logistics were tremendously expensive and time consuming before the digital age and email - a time sink.
Nancy Florence enrolled in my urban design and architecture class that first summer at WSPA. WSPA was very different from conventional architectural schools: we welcomed any woman, of any age, interested in design, architecture, planning, construction, architectural history, lighting design, landscape, carpentry (Katrin Adam, a co-founder from NY, was a licensed architect and German Certified Journeyman carpenter in her native country), or any other remotely related field. WSPA was a miniature cosmos of how some of us thought the world ought to be run. We welcome participants' children, offering free child care. I taught a class in urban design and architecture using the Biddeford College campus and struggling academic program and economic challenges as our project site. Nancy attended my class and was one of 4 women (whom I subsequently knew about) in that class of about 17 who decided to become architects after attending WSPA that year. Three of them were interested in one way or another in architecture before they enrolled in my class but they carried out the lengthy professional accreditation to become architects partly because of my class and their experience at WSPA. (6)
Nancy told me a few years ago that my class that summer in Biddeford was the best class she ever attended which meant so much to me. I thought it was my most successful class because it was the only one I taught for which I alone was responsible. I never taught formally again, but often felt that I ran a graduate class in my office.
In 1976-1977 I left my position in San Francisco (by then an urban designer at ROMA) and lived in San Francisco and Sacramento - so I could work at the State Architect's Office on the first energy efficient buildings in modern times in California. Sim van der Ryn invited me to join a dynamic group of young forward-thinking design consultants including Peter Calthorp and Bruce Corson. We transformed how California programmed and designed buildings. Sim had met California's youngest Governor ever (now California oldest governor ever), Jerry Brown at Tassajara Hot Springs - the Buddhist Monastery Retreat where people skinny dipped in hot springs and cooled down in a clear mountain stream with the most secure crawdads I've ever seen - they were totally unafraid of people. No one dared eat a crawdad because the Buddhists were strict vegetarians. Jerry was in his Small is Beautiful, "Governor Moonbeam" phase. He wanted to balance power and promote justice in the world by appointing women and minorities to public offices and state commissions. It was a time of optimism in which all of us were already keenly aware of global warming, which was already well under way. We unanimously supported building energy efficient buildings and enacting energy- saving building codes (Title 24). That decade of smart choices and courageous decisions resulted in California using 1/3 of the fossil fuel per person today that the rest of the US uses. (7)
Nancy and I stayed in touch as our lives changed during this period. We had fun as well as worked hard. The best thing about my position at the State Architect's Office was that it sometimes gave me opportunities to recommend the best people for various projects or commissions who were, often coincidentally, women. I recommended hiring a good design firm where Cathy Simon then worked was a Principal and chief designer, Marquis Associates. They were selected for the largest project that her firm had ever done at that time - the State Department of Justice, for which I had not only written the organizational and urban design program but also prepared the conceptual design.
I also had an opportunity to improve architectural licensing procedures by recommending a public member to the State Board of Architect Examiners (today called the California Architects Board). Governor Brown supported consumer protection and had signed introduced and signed legislation requiring two public members for every professional licensing board. He was (and remains) strongly committed to full participation for women and minorities. So when Sim asked me for recommendations to the public positions on the architects' board, I highly recommended Nancy Florence (then Nancy Baker). Governor Brown appointed her to the California Architects Board in 1976. She served for 3 years with distinction.
|At our last meeting, Nancy told me she was proud of what she had accomplished as a result of her experience on the Board. She served for 3 of the 4 years of her appointment until she had to resign because she had been accepted to study architecture for a professional degree at UC Berkeley. Nancy was a fearless though gracious proponent of women's rights. She insisted on adding women to the list of interviewers for licensure applicants who had passed all the written exams. She also got to know male Board members and helped them to accept women as equal board members and architects. (8)|
Nancy told me how she confronted prejudice from a male Board member with her characteristically gentle but rapier humor. When he asked her what her husband did at lunch, she replied by asking him what his wife did. She was fearless and polite - a disarming combination. No matter what the circumstance or title of her colleagues, she was firm in her commitment. She insisted on and got more women architects appointed to be test reviewers and also to provide personal interviews of all candidates who had passed the written portions of the exam.
Although many of her earlier interests and her undergraduate degree in botany had informed her design ability and interests, Nancy's late start on her formal career in architecture limited the scope of her projects and clients. After she received her professional degree from Berkeley, Nancy interned with Polly Cooper and Ken Haggard at the San Luis Obispo Solar Group. (9) SLO Solar Group has designed and built passive solar buildings which have functioned off the grid since the mid-1970's. Ken and Polly taught environmental and energy-efficient design in the Dept. of Architecture at the California Polytechnical Institute San Louise Obispo (CalPolySLO).
As soon as she was licensed she chose to work as a sole practitioner, and hired architectural and structural consultants as she thought necessary - an ingenious solution to field experience. There is no debate about how design decisions were made - Nancy made them. There is a remarkable consistency in style and problem solving among all her projects. But her way of working as a sole proprietor necessarily limited the size and scope of her projects.
Her local consultants also helped to make her projects more site specific. It was part of her goals to use vernacular forms and construction.
|Then she asked Jonathan (who became a good friend and great admirer of Nancy), to do a year-long sun study to orient the house in the most southerly direction possible (keeping in mind our location on the Big Wood River which we wanted to be able to look out on) in order to take advantage of the sunlight that came through the east, south and west-facing windows as well as through the clerestory windows located on all sides of the main public areas. This was to enable passive solar heating of the concrete floors…|
She also specified extra thick exterior walls and was adamant about not allowing anything to compromise their insulating quality. For example, I wanted to have a recessed toilet paper holder in 2 of the bathrooms where they would need to be placed in an exterior-facing wall…….'absolutely not', said Nancy.
Nancy taught me so much about what makes a house comfortable and livable. When it came to laying out the rooms, Nancy recognized that on warm sunny days we would gravitate toward the light and sit on one of the several window seats out under the strong scissor trusses and under the soaring light-filled cedar-clad ceiling where we could look out at the river and landscape or just relax and read by the good available (natural) light.
But, when evening came and the temperatures dropped, she knew we’d want to retreat to a cozier location, a sofa-lined inglenook by the fireplace, with a lower ceiling, a warmer, enveloping escape from the night-time darkness and temperature drop.
We love the aesthetic design of the house, which she named “Idaho Vernacular” because of its barn-like profile of a rather steep-pitched roof where a hayloft might be (and which actually creates our loft thus making the inglenook possible) then changing to a gentler slope where the animal stalls might be (which forms several of the porch overhangs, cutting out the high summer sun but allowing in the low winter sun …… creating the possibility for passive solar heating, (when the relatively low winter sun comes under the eaves).
Nancy also paid great attention to detailing the alder paneling throughout the public rooms and the wall moldings e.g. there is a flat alder mold at the top of the wood paneling in the public area that continues unbroken throughout all the rooms including the bathrooms and shower areas. This creates a cohesive feeling throughout the house.
But it is the wonderful light that pervades almost every room, which comes from north, east, south and west in the public areas and from at least 2 different walls in almost every room of the house (and 3 in the master bedroom). As I’ve grown older I have come to crave this kind of light in my Los Angeles home but didn’t understand the importance of it when I was younger.
Cooking and entertaining is a joy in this house because of its informal layout and the inclusion of the kitchen in the main living area. When we get together as an extended family, we all contribute with the cooking and no one is left out of the conversations. This makes our mealtimes a real family affair. If we have a large party, we have several seating areas for people to gather and we can set up an extra table for dining or to serve as a buffet. It’s somewhat like a stage set where one can move things around to accommodate different needs.
Nancy’s House (as it was often referred to by our mother who enjoyed the few times she was able to be there before she died) is a place of comfort to us, our 2 grown children as well as Nancy’s 2 grown children and her grandson. We enjoy gathering there for holidays, for skiing or summer recreation. The only drawback is that it’s a long drive or an expensive plane ride. Shirley Shapiro.
Nancy's beautiful vacation house for her sister and brother-in-law Shirley and Ralph Shapiro illustrates her gentle application of passive solar principles. Her vertical and horizontal articulation of expansion joints and wood paneling keeps the passive design from seeming like a kit of parts, as some passive buildings do. But Nancy called upon her knowledge of traditional Japanese house design based on the tatami mat to articulate surfaces into a unified geometric pattern. (10)
Nancy's design and her life reflected her deepest values - living all-too-uncommon "common sense." Using natural, minimal means to achieve maximum effect. Honoring lasting values which are inherently beautiful and which weather naturally. She had no regard for what was trendy or selling in the shelter magazines. She didn't want to submit photos of the Ketchum house for publication in Sunset Magazine as I suggested it would be a great example of a vacation house. She avoided veneers and show. She made structures visible as a primary design motif since none of her buildings had to be fire-rated. Developing a geometrical rhythm, similar to the tatami in traditional Japanese homes, with wood paneling and expansion scoring in poured concrete floors (see the living room photo, Wood River House, Ketchum) and wood work gave the houses a unity which was tranquil and inviting.
|Text by Bobbie Sue Hood, FAIA, architect, San Francisco, California and founding OWA Member|
Principal, Hood Miller Associates, Inc., founded 1977 in San Francisco.
Photo Credits: Nancy's family, friends, and I regret that we cannot identify the photographers of the photos in this article which were in Nancy's archives. Please notify Bobbie Sue Hood (BHood@HoodMiller.com) or the OWA Newsletter Editor if you any information about the photographers.
Footnotes. When I began recalling Nancy's story, I experienced a vivid brain dump of memories of the political circumstances and women's rights movement which stirred so powerfully in the 1970's. I pulled this peripheral commentary out into footnotes. These can be read sequentially as a "counter melody" to provide context to Nancy's life.
(1) Thanks to Gloria Steinem's absurd Dadaist, narcissistic campaign in Florida (a woman needs a man like a fish needs a bicycle…) the Equal Rights Amendment, which had initially had widespread support among all women, began to polarize "traditional women" and "libbers." The ERA failed to get the 3/4 of the states approval as required by the Constitution. Fortunately, we did win some federal legal victories like Title 9 - stipulating that schools and colleges must spend equal amounts of money for women's and men's sports. I was grateful when by 1992, "the year of the women" a gross overstatement. I was represented at the national level by Senators Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer, and Nancy Pelosi who presented my Congressional District in San Francisco. For the most part, they have been exemplary: Nancy and Barbara voted against the 2003 American invasion of Iraq on baseless grounds. Dianne did much to save original old growth redwoods in northern California and desert in southern California, and eventually strongly protested the official US torture program as Chair of the Senate Intelligence Committee.
(2) Guests and the owners family could stay in Italian Renaissance guest houses, tour the zoo, ride horses under the long pergola for shade, tour the stables, service buildings, workers' housing, store, and port. They could luxuriate in rooms finished with museum quality finishes, furniture, and art. It was glorious excess as its aesthetic best for a powerful and discerning media baron. Sarah asked the guide who the architect was. The guide said Julia Morgan, but knew nothing further about her. Sarah knew that she had discovered how to spend the rest of her life: to discover who Julia Morgan was, how she became an architect in a man's world, to document and publish her findings like the good historian she was, to interview any still living people Morgan had known, hired, worked for, or photographed Morgan, and thereby to rescue an extraordinary early woman architect, who was unknown nationally, from the dust bin of history. At the time, Morgan was deliberately ignored in studies at UC Berkeley, compared with contemporary male architects.
(3) I read Sarah's many drafts and gave her many of my opinions about what distinguished Morgan's work from other practitioners of her time. I repeatedly insisted she make sure that her book would do justice to Julia Morgan's by publishing a top quality coffee table deserving book with excellent color photographs. I insisted she buy out her original editor/publisher and hire a first class architectural photographer who could and would transform the then prevailing opinion of Morgan's work as a second rate historical designer, and be technically sufficient for publishing her work in full color plates to do justice to Morgan's skills. Sarah followed this advice and hired an unknown, beginning architectural photographer, Richard Barnes, who exceeded my highest hopes. So when she published her great authoritative history, Julia Morgan Architect in 1988, the color photos and Sarah's exhaustive research, transformed her public reputation. Morgan's work from being interesting curiosity as a successful woman architect to a first rate architect of her time, worthy of comparison with her mentor Bernard Maybeck. The huge sales (for an architectural biography) and continuing editions of the popular work, which is still in print, launched Richard Barnes' career as one of the best photographers on the West Coast. In 2014, the American Institute of Architects gave Julia Morgan a posthumous Gold Metal for excellence - a well-deserved honor which required a change in the AIA's criteria that the award go only to living architects. They deserve credit for trying to make up for past discrimination - but it took a new generation of active women to push the award through.
I received a Masters of Architecture from UC Berkeley in 1971. In 1974-6, I taught graduate urban design and architecture as a lecturer there. I lived in San Francisco and worked at MBT Architecture (now part of Perkins & Will). New to the city, and newly married, I decided to purchase and play a harpsichord to meet people in the city. An architect colleague who was fond of early music suggested that unlike my piano, harpsichord music required multiple musicians on other instruments so I could easily meet people by playing one! I soon discovered how difficult this fantasy would be even if I had nothing else to do, but in the meantime I visited the studio of a remarkable local harpsichord maker - Bjarne Dahl. When Bjarne learned I was an architect, he said women in architecture were so rare, wasn't it amazing that he had, as a small boy, lived with a woman architect during the early 1940's - Julia Morgan? And, wasn't it amazing that I was the second woman who had just asked him about Julia Morgan, - Sarah Boutelle! Bjarne's father, with the same name, was the drafting assistant for Morgan's onsite project architect Edward Hussey for the Honolulu Y! Bjarne the Elder lived in Honolulu during WW2 during construction of Morgan's YWCA. Young Bjarne remained in San Francisco because Honolulu was considered too dangerous for children after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. Sarah Boutelle had asked Bjarne everything he knew about Julia Morgan. (Julia Morgan, Architect, page 109). Bjarne gave me Sarah's phone number.
(4) OWA was not the oldest women architects group. The AWA (Association of Women in Architecture was founded in LA in the 1940's) and was updated to deal with current circumstances. The 1970's saw growing numbers of women with professional degrees in architecture, law, and medicine began to speak up about unequal treatment and relatively low pay. We organized, very politely, to be treated fairly and also to advance in our professions. At first just glad to be hired, we quickly realized our need for jobs with equal growth potential and pay to develop professionally as architects. Despite some early progress, including a research project to interview male principals to identify the reasons they didn't hire and promote more women, we soon realized how subtle, culturally embedded, long term, and challenging the fight for equal pay, equal responsibility, and recognition would be. Today we have stunning success stories, including Cathy Simon, Marsha Maytum, and Allison Williams, all principals and CEO's with national and international reputations for design excellence and running successful offices. However, women architects in general remain at the lower end of the wage spectrum after 40 years. Many young women today - are they the smartest or most easily discouraged? - leave the profession soon after receiving professional degrees. The American Institute of Architects reports today that 34% of all women with professional degrees in architecture drop out of the field within 5 years of graduating - a stunning loss of talent and training. But the AIA, in the national backlash against affirmative action in about 1994 was happy to drop keeping records the number of women in the architecture, their positions, and their salaries.
(5) Unbelievably, this problem has resurged since the mid-1990's and become a major political debate today. Many women in professional schools have recently returned to taking long "breaks" from their professions because of propaganda extolling the superiority of children attended solely by their mothers rather than by "strangers." Many pioneer women architects, doctors, scientists, and attorneys were fighting for the opposite concept, that women could work, find ways to combine their professional responsibilities with motherhood, and develop the same expertise from lifetime employment that male and childless female architects had. This has been mislabeled by propaganda which calls it "having it all." No one has it all, but it's simply a matter of organization and money to combine children and career. This is an ongoing battle today. When Nancy enrolled at the age of 44 in the Option 3 Master of Architecture program at UC Berkeley, her children were still teenagers.
(6) The first two WSPA summer sessions were the first summer programs for prospective architecture students to try out architecture with experienced professionals and teachers at a college. Our vanguard program has since been copied by prestigious conventional architectural schools including Harvard and Berkeley. To my knowledge, none of them have offered free child care, individual counseling and consultation for related careers, and such a broad curriculum - as we did. WSPA unraveled a few years, after I was no longer active, for lack of a viable business plan and internal disagreements among those in charge. But the ideas in WSPA continue in conventional high quality graduate programs in design and architecture - a way to test the waters with sage advisers without taking the major plunge of graduate school tuition.
The President of Biddeford College was so impressed when he participated in our jury at the end, and so delighted with our ideas for college programs and physical facility changes that he tried to obtain a grant to hire us to develop a plan for how to change the curriculum and buildings. We built an extraordinary model of the campus on the beach with sand, rocks, shells, and seaweed (available on video at the Sophia Smith Collection of Smith College). We named our enterprise Sand Castles and were all set to incorporate to take on our first project, when he called to say he had been unable to raise the funds for our master plan and program. The college and the town continued to decline and were quite derelict when I passed through in 2004.
(7) The first Brown Administration took on some traditional bastions of intentional or unintentional male prerogative. I was in charge of space programming for all state buildings and rewrote space allocations to be based on function and need rather than Civil Service rank. This effectively gave some women with low civil service rank the larger space they needed to run all the machines they used in those days while male colleagues luxuriated in excessively large and relatively empty conference room/offices based on their civil service rank and salary. I also programmed child care into state facilities with high turnover rates among clerical staff like the State Department of Justice Criminal Records, to help parents with small children. But, despite a favorable recommendation from the State Legislative Analyst that it would reduce absenteeism and high turnover in staff, conservative Republican Senators cut childcare out of the project authorization to preserve "the traditional family." The irony was that that was my goal in including child care.
(8) In retrospect, it is interesting to note how much women architects like Nancy helped to reform the general practice of architecture in California despite our relatively low standing and salaries. At OWA meetings in the Bay Area, we exchanged notes on unfair practices in the licensing process for architects. Back in the Bay Area, the early members of the OWA learned about special treatment of selected individuals, unequal treatment of men and women in the licensing process of the California Board of Architects (today known at the California Architects Board or CAB), and lack of transparency and accountability. I formed a committee at the AIASF to advocate for reform at the state level, and as I've always found the AIA in San Francisco, the local Executive Director Marie Farrell and chapter officers enthusiastically agreed with OWA's analysis. AIASF began to network with other AIA chapters to make the California licensing process fair and transparent. During the same period, I went to Sacramento to work with Sim van der Ryn who had been appointed State Architect by Governor Jerry Brown (during Brown's first administration in 1976). We were revolutionaries in many ways. I pushed for humane treatment of all employees, for space standards based on the employees' function and work rather than civil service rank, and for providing the large number of clerical workers (typically women) with windows and natural light rather than burying them in the basement or inner offices with no access to windows. The test itself was somewhat arbitrary and subject to interpretation. Amazingly, the response among men and women was unanimous - and new litigation passed quickly. This reform was for all licensees not just for women and minorities - a good strategy for more equal treatment under the law for women. Our success came surprisingly swiftly when we organized.
(9) Polly Cooper and I both grew up in and attended Little Rock Central High School, a then huge and excellent high school - my class had 714 people. We both sang in the a capella choir - which required competitive auditions. Polly was 3 years younger than I and also quite tall, so I gave her my choir robe in a ceremony when I left. We reconnected when she was finishing her masters degree in architecture at UC Berkeley (already having a masters degree from Harvard). Polly and Ken's first house had an evaporative pond on the roof for natural cooling in the desert. They have built and designed many houses which are totally off-the-grid. Polly taught environmental design at Cal Poly, and taught passive solar design at the 2nd WSPA summer session in Santa Cruz in 1976, which Nancy also attended. Small world for women architects in the 1970's!
(10) Interesting, this is the exact pattern in redwood in Julia Morgan's St. John Presbyterian Church on College Avenue which I happened upon when I lived nearby during architecture school. This building is so meticulously detailed - even the wood light fixtures comply - that I recognized it as a universal type - the perfect minimalist building. Though considered Japanese (as in Frank Lloyd Wright's buildings), it is actually a universal pattern which also heavily influenced Beaux Arts design in Paris. When I asked Sally Woodward, an architectural historian who taught at Berkeley who the architect was she replied - oh, it's just Julia Morgan, a second rate architect. Sally took over editing Sarah's book for new editions after Sarah retired. Sally went to the same publisher, design, format, and photographer for her book on Bernard Maybeck as Sarah's Julia Morgan Architect, which also helped Sally to introduce Maybeck, the Bay Area's greatest architect of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and Julia Morgan's teacher, mentor, and co-architect for the Hearst Memorial Gym on the UC Berkeley campus, to a new generation of admirers.
View this page in your browser